Tuesday, 22 September 2009


1.0 Introduction:
The purpose of this paper is to provide the community profile of Mwanga District. The profile is an overview of the district in all important social economic and geographical aspects which can be used as a road map for identifying natural resources and exploitation thereof for development. The report will also explain what nature has not provided to the district and economical effects thereof. The profile will include, historical background of Mwanga, indigenous people living in the area, location of the district, area, population/demography and topographic features of the place. The profile will also include climate and vegetation of the district, agriculture production and livestock, fisheries activities, beekeeping, economic infrastructure and social services. The profile will also provide details of financial Institutions (FI) and Microfinance institutions MFIs available

2.0 Historical background of the district.
Mwanga district was established in 1976 after splitting Pare District into Same and Mwanga. The reason behind splitting the district is not clearly known but some people say that it was a way of attracting more resources to the people of Pare after having two districts instead of one, therefore the split enhanced resources allocation for the Pare people. Others ague that former pare district was too big as compared to the size of Kilimanjaro Region.

2.1 Indigenous people
Majority of people living in Mwanga district are known as Pare people also known as Vaasu. Historically, it is believed that they came from Taita mountains in Kenya more than 300 years ago. Also some Chagga clans came and settled in some parts of the mountains, in Ugweno division more than 100 years ago. However people from other tribes migrated to Mwanga during colonial error as laborers in Kisangara sisal estates and some few years ago, fishermen from Nyasa / Songea came to settle along lake Jipe and Nyumba ya Mungu Dam.

3.0 Location of the District and Area
Mwanga District is one of the five Administrative Districts in Kilimanjaro Region. It boarders with Moshi Rural in the North, Republic of Kenya in the East sharing lake Jipe, Same District in the south and Simanjiro District of Manyara Region in the west. The District covers an area of 2,641 Square kilometers, which is divided into five divisions, 16 Wards, 60 Villages and 270 Sub Villages. ( See Appendix 001, Mwanga district map)

4.0 Population/Demography
According to year 2002 Population Census, there were 115,145 people living in the District. Males were 55,666 and Females 59,954. Total households were 24,326. Furthermore, children under 5 years were 15,286. School aged children were 17,053 and workforce counted to 57,807 whereas those unable to work e.g. Old people, crippled ones and the like were 6,664. Using annual growth rate of 3%, the estimated number of people up to year 2007 will be 132,417.

5.0 Topography
The District is characterized by Eastern and Western Lowlands and in the middle there are table mountains on which Usangi and Ugweno divisions are located, forming one of the Eastern Arc Mountains. In the Eastern low lands lies lake Jipe which is also one of the sources of River Pangani which meanders down to the west where the Nyumba ya Mungu Dam was constructed.

6.0 Climate and vegetation

The District is one of the semi-arid areas in Kilimanjaro Region. It experiences 500 – 600 mm of rainfall per annum in the low lands and between 800 – 1,250mm in the highlands. There are two distinct rainy seasons, short rainfall (Vuli) from October to December and long rainfall (Masika) from March to June.

The District experiences some strong and dry winds blowing normally from the East to the West. The temperatures range between an average of 14 °C during June – July and 32 °C during other months.

The land area is covered by shrubs of Acacia type especially in both Eastern and Western Lowlands. Short grass exists in the highlands and forests around the mountains. Some of these forests were preserved by the people long time ago for ritual ceremonies.

7.0 Agriculture production
The main Economic Activities performed by the Mwanga Community is Agriculture, Livestock keeping and Fishing. Despite the fact that rainfall is unreliable, coffee and Bananas are cultivated in the table mountains/Highland areas. Production of the crops is at substance level.

Nevertheless, Irrigation in the Eastern, Northern and Western lowlands is popular for Maize, Beans and Paddy production. Also there is a special type of irrigation in the highlands popularly known as “Ndiva” (Water catchments across the rivers and valleys) in order to get water for irrigation.

Food crops production in the District include: Maize, Leguminous crops, Paddy, Bananas, fruits and Vegetables. However production level is not enough to support food security of the district. Therefore the district depends on food crops supplied from other areas. Cash crops including, Coffee, Cotton and Sisal whose level of production is low.

The majority of the community use hand hoe in Agricultural activities. There are only 30 tractors in the District and 123 ploughs.

8.0 Livestock
8.1 Heard count

Large herds of cattle, goats and sheep are kept in both Western and Eastern lowlands.
The District estimates that there are 76,085 cattle out of which 8262 are improved breed. There are also 98,902 goats out of which 207 are improved breed, 34,950 sheep and 180,334 chickens.

8.2 Diseases
Common diseases to cattle include:- ECF which attacked 308 cattle and 14 died.
Anaplasmosis attacked 682 cattle and 140 died. Tryponosomiasis attacked 914 cattle and 18 died.

590 Goats were attacked by CCPP in which 12 died and 136 goats were attacked by pneumonia and 30 died other disease are foot rot. Sheep are attacked by pneumonia foot rot and (Hs) Lung fever “Homa ya Mapafu”. Poultry suffer from New Caste, Fowl typhoid and Fowl Pox.

8.3 Livestock Services
These include cattle dips whereby the district has 13 cattle dips and all of them are not working. Also there are 27 slaughter slabs, all of them are working, 6 Chaco dams, 4 of them are in good condition. There are also 3 cattle markets but only one is being used.
There are 9 livestock health centers and all of them are working.

9.0 Financial Institutions and Cooperatives
9.1. Financial Institutions

The district has 3 financial Institutions, Mwanga rural community Bank Ltd (MRCB), Tanzania Postal Bank operating through district Postal office and National Microfinance Bank (NMB). Therefore banking, financial services are available in the district.

9.2 Primary Co-operative Societies

The district has a total of 13 Primary Cooperative Societies with a total of 3,488 members. One primary cooperative society is not operating while others are operating below capacity due to low production in coffee and competition with private coffee buying companies with a lot of financial resources. Cooperatives are under the supervision of district cooperative officer.

9.3. SACCOS.
There are 21 Savings and Credit Cooperative Societies (SACCOS) out of which 2 are employment based SACCOS. 13 SACCOS are already linked to Financial Institutions. The SACCOS are playing a very important role in linking the people especially in the rural area, to the financial services. Through SACCOS microenterprises are able to obtain micro credit for production in agriculture and trading. SACCOS in the district are provided with technical support, and capacity building by Rural Financial Services Program financed by the Government and IFAD.

10.0 Natural Resources Forest and Environmental Protection
Mwanga District, like many other districts in the Region, is facing a threat of loosing its natural beauty due to unauthorized collection, and harvesting of natural resources especially in activities of charcoal production in which natural tree are harvested in the low lands and timber production in the mountains and other domestic uses. Likewise poor agricultural practices including livestock keeping are responsible for land degradation.

11.0 Fishing
Main fishing activity is carried out at Nyumba ya Mungu Dam. Fishing at Lake Jipe has almost stopped due to its shores being covered by water reeds and other plants.

12.0 Beekeeping
Beekeeping is not largely practiced and therefore reliable data is not readily available. But in 2007 an NGO was established to promote application of modern bee hives.

13.0 Industries and Minerals
There are no investments in industrial production and mining in Mwanga district. Only small craftsman businesses for local consumption are available. However gypsum has been discovered recently by one businessman and is currently under low production. Sandy stones, as building material are mined in the district for supply within the district, Moshi and Rombo. Granite stones for building houses are available in many parts of the district.

14.0 Economic Infrastructure
14.1 Roads
The District is lucky to have a trunk road from Dar es Salaam and Tanga to Arusha, which is 50 Km passing through the District headquarter and other big trading centers of Kisangara and Kifaru.

Mwanga district have gravel roads covering 121 km, Earth road covering 438 km, which are maintained by road funds of TANROADS and District council’s own sources of funds and village communities.

14. 2 Railways
There is a Railway line passing through the district from Dar es Salaam and Tanga to Moshi, Arusha and Mombasa in Kenya. However few good are transported using the railway due to availability of light trucks transporting goods faster and cheaper as compared to railway transport. Furthermore passenger trains ceased to operate long time ago.

15.0 Social Services

15.1 Education
Mwanga District has 62 pre-Primary schools out of which the government owns 54 and 8 by the private sector. There are 108 Primary schools owned by the government. Also there are 35 secondary schools out of which, 13 are privately owned. Education industry has expanded substantially in Mwanga recently employing a lot of people. This is a source of cash inflow to the district. (Refer to appendix 002)

I6.0 Health
16.1 Government Health Services
The District has 46 dispensaries, 5 Health Centers and one District Hospital; also there are 8 Dispensaries owned by Private Sector.

16.2 Top ten diseases include:
1. Malaria
2. Diarrhea
3. Pneumonia
4. Eye diseases
5. UTI
6. Skin Diseases
7. ARI
8. Heart diseases
9. Asthma
10. HIV/AIDS Diseases

17. 0 Water supply
Availability of clean and safe water in the District is still a problem. Only 47% of the population is supplied with clean water. The list below shows various sources of water:-
1. Shallow wells with hand pumps are 56
2. Deep wells using diesel pumps are 4 and those using electrical pumps are 6.
3. The district have 9 Gravity schemes

18.0 Land use plans
· Area under food coop production is 18,000 Ha
· Area under cash crop production is 2,454 Ha
· Area for livestock keeping is 118,115 Ha
· Area covered by Natural forests is 8,469.6 Ha
· Area planted with trees is 2,640Ha

19.0 Sports and Entertainment
There are 2 hand ball grounds, 15 foot ball grounds and 6 athletics grounds, and one hall for indoor entertainments. There are also 7 teams of various sports and games.

20. Conclusion
From the foregoing we can conclude that Mwanga economy is predominantly subsistence with few cash crops produced at low output/yield. There are no investments in industries and minerals. Only small craftsman businesses for local consumption are available. Commercial sector on the other hand recorded remarkable growth in recent years however its performance depends on other sectors like agriculture, industries and mining which are not performing well.

However the district is potential for agriculture production in horticulture crops like Flowers and vegetables in the Table Mountains. Also irrigation, which is underutilized, could increase production in the dry lowlands of the district. We also believe that the district is endowed with minerals including gypsum, which is currently under production. Furthermore the district has advantage of transport and petrol station business as it has a share of about 50 Kms of Dar es Salaam- Arusha highway. Also the District’s high number of primary and Secondary schools and one Teachers Training College, contribute to cash inflow to the district.
From the foregoing we can conclude that income-generating activities of the district are expected to improve after efficient utilization of available resources.

Source: Planning Department of the Local Government, Mwanga

Mwanga Rural Community Bank Profile



Mwanga Rural Community Bank Limited popularly known as “Benki ya Wananchi Mwanga” opened doors to the public eight years ago after obtained its license from Bank of Tanzania as a Regional Unit Financial Institution in year 2000. In 2009 the bank obtained its Regional Commercial Bank License. The bank is a public limited company whose shareholders are individuals from every village of Mwanga District, and other places like Dar es Salaam, Arusha, Dodoma, Tanga and Moshi, Institutions and Non Government Organizations like TGT, Mwanga Pare Community Development Trust Fund, and Mwanga District Council etc. There is no majority shareholder.

For the last 6 years, the bank has registered tremendous success in terms of growth both in business volume and profitability. The bank started making profit in year 2003, since then Retained Profit has been growing at an average growth rate of 76% to reach 321M in 2008 after paying dividends of TZS 162M in 2005, 2006, 2007 and 2008. Deposits on the other hand were growing at an average rate of 108% to reach TZS 5.0 BN in 2008 while Loan Portfolio has been growing at an average growth rate of 270% to reach 3.7 4 BN in 2008.

Mission Statement of MRCB

‘To mobilize resources and empower economically the community as stakeholders, through financial intermediation by providing valuable and efficient banking and related services to support and strengthen their own development’.

Vision statement

‘To be a leading and preferred Community bank in the country, providing microfinance and commercial banking services with products highly competitive in the market to achieve sustainable growth’.

Services and products

We have been providing services and products to our customers at reasonable costs with great achievement. Through those services and products, the bank has been a catalyst for community development in Mwanga. The services are as follows:

(i) Receiving deposits from the community through customers opening and operating current Accounts, Savings Accounts and fixed deposits.

· In savings accounts we are paying interest at the rate of 3% and charging only TZS 200 every month as maintenance fee.

· Faidika Savings Account with interest rate ranging from 6%-8% and Junior accounts with interest rate of 6%.

· Foreign Exchange Savings accounts in USD and Euro.

· Current accounts deposits (demand deposits) and we charge TZS 200 monthly as maintenance fee for employees’ accounts. For private individuals we charge 2,000 and Companies we charge TZS 3,500 monthly as maintenance fee.

· 24 hours ATM services which accepts Visa Electron and Master cards from all Banks in Tanzania issuing such plastic cards.

· Fixed deposit accounts earn interest between 5% and 12% depending on amount deposited and duration. However the interest rate is negotiable.

(ii) We are providing loans to individuals, SACCOS, groups, Institutions like secondary schools and companies for various community needs geared to their economic development. Our terms are favorable as compared to other banks and our decisions are fast.

(iii) MRCB also offers Money transfer services within and outside the country using conventional banking money transfer system and Western Union money transfer as a sub-agent.

(iv) We are providing “Performance and Bid Guarantees” to contractors.

(v) MRCB is also an agent of Real Insurance (T) for various Insurance covers especially those linked to our lending business.


Address: Mwanga Rural Community Bank, P.O Box 333 Mwanga, Kilimanjaro
Telephone and Fax: General line: 027 2757830, Direct: 027 2756770 Fax 027 2754235
E-Mail: mwangabank@satconet.net
Contact person: Managing Director, Mr. Abby Ghuhia

Friday, 24 October 2008


This paper examines the issue of poverty globally and in the context of developing countries, taking Tanzania as an example. Also this paper will discuss various classifications of poverty in terms of different levels and types as done by International Organizations responsible for global poverty eradication. Overview of factors contributing to poverty will be discussed and policies and strategies for poverty alleviation in Tanzania. Challenges and weakness on the war to alleviate poverty in Tanzania and what have been achieved so far. This paper will also provide suggestions on the best approach to the solution to this human catastrophic problem of our time. [1]

Phil Bartle (2007) stated that poverty as a social problem is deeply embedded wound that permeates every dimension of culture and society. It includes sustained low levels of income for members of the community. It included a lack of access to services like education, markets, health care, lack of decision making ability, and lack of communal facilities like water, sanitation, roads, transportation, and communication.

Poverty is what we hear and see in our daily life in every place we visit or reading newspaper or listening to radio news bulletin. We find street children begging for few coins from motorists in Dar es salaam and other cities, women walking long distances in search of water in urban areas and rural areas, reading an article in daily news paper on a man stabbed to death by his neighbor after failure to pay a loan of TZS 250 only!, and suicides committed due to failure to fulfill family responsibilities. All these reflect the level of poverty within our communities.

Further, Dr. Phil Bartle (2007) suggests that poverty can only be eradicated after understanding factors which contribute to the social problem of poverty. Poverty as a social problem calls for a social solution. That solution is the clear, conscious and deliberate removal of the factors. We should note that factors and causes are not quite the same thing. A “cause” can be seen as something that contribute to the origin of a problem like poverty, while a “factor” can be seen as something that contributes to its continuation after it already exist[2].

What we observe, experience and see as poverty in our daily life are just symptoms of poverty which we cannot alleviate them without fighting factors which are responsible for their occurrences. For example providing food to the victims of hunger in the community is considered as merely alleviating symptoms of poverty in the short run. It is not a durable solution. But providing technology adaptation on irrigation farming so that people do not depend on rainfall on farming is fighting against the factor of poverty known as ignorance.

2.1 Definition
Poverty has been defined in different ways depending on culture, social economic environment. Lack of money can be referred as poverty but in reality money is a measure of wealth and lack of it is lack of wealth and can not be referred as a state of poverty. In other societies having many wives and children is a symbol of wealth and lack of it is symbol of poverty. All these are not social problems of poverty.
English free dictionary (2007), defined poverty as a state of being poor; state of being inferior, poor quality. The quality or state of being poor or indigent; want or scarcity of means of subsistence; indigence; need. Any deficiency of elements or resources that are needed or desired, or that constitute richness; as, poverty of soil; poverty of the blood; poverty of ideas[3]
Wikipedia free encyclopedia define poverty as the condition in which a person or community is deprived of, and or lacks the essentials for a minimum standard of a well-being and life. These essentials may be material resources such as safe drinking water, food, and shelter, or they may be social resources such as access to information, education, health care, social status, political power, or the opportunity to develop meaningful connection with other people in the society[4].
World Bank defines poverty as hunger, lack of shelter, being sick and unable to see a doctor. Poverty is not having access to school and not knowing how to read. Poverty is not a job, is fear of the future, living one day at a time. Poverty is loosing a child due to illness brought about by unclean water. Poverty is powerlessness, lack of representation and freedom.
Poverty has many faces changing from place to place and across time and has been described in many ways. It is a situation people want to escape as a call of action-for the poor and the wealth alike-a call to change the world so that many more may have enough to eat, adequate shelter, access to education and health, protection from violence, and a voice in what happens in their communities[5].

2.2 Classification of poverty
a) Income poverty:
I. UNDP (2000)
UNDP classified income poverty into two categories: extreme and overall.
Ø Extreme poverty or absolute poverty: lack of income necessary to satisfy basic food needs-usually defined on the basis of minimum calories requirements.
Ø Overall poverty or relative poverty: Lack of income necessary to satisfy essential non- food needs-such as for clothing, energy and shelter-as well as food needs

II. World Bank
World bank also classify poverty in terms of income which is subdivided into extreme poverty and moderate poverty. This involves social economic growth which is elaborated or indicated by per capital income and GDP growth of a certain community.
i. Extreme poverty:
These are people living on less than US$ 1 per person, per day.
ii. Moderate poverty:
These are people living on less than $2 a day. It has been estimated that in 2001, 1.1 billion people had consumption levels below $1 a day and 2.7 billion lived on less than $2 a day. The proportion of the developing world's population living in extreme economic poverty has fallen from 28 percent in 1990 to 21 percent in 2001. Much of the improvement has occurred in East and South Asia. In Sub-Saharan Africa GDP/capita shrank with 14 percent and extreme poverty increased from 41 percent in 1981 to 46 percent in 2001.[6]

The prevalence of income poverty is still high in Tanzania. According to the household budget survey of 2000/1 the proportion of the population below the national food poverty line is 18.7% and that below the national basic needs poverty line is 35.7%.[7]

b) Social wellbeing poverty:
This is a situation whereby people are not able to access to main social needs such as clean and safe water, health services, quality education, and freedom of expression of opinions (components of Human rights). “About 47% of rural households are still using unprotected sources of drinking water in Tanzania. Long distances to sources of drinking water in rural area entail heavy workload on women and children” About 28.6% of Tanzanians cannot read and write in any language. There is more illiteracy among women [36%] than men [20.4%] …., this is due to large gender disparities in enrollment in secondary and tertiary levels. The vulnerability of girls to cultural belief and customs, early pregnancies and sexual abuse remain challenges to enrolment and completion of schooling”. Many poor people, children and women in particular, die without ever accessing a health facility, whereas eight out of ten children die at home and six of then without any contact with formal health services. [8].
UNDP (2000) Classify this as human poverty characterized with lack of basic human capabilities: Illiteracy, malnutrition, abbreviated life span, poor maternal health, illness from preventable diseases.
Indirect indicators for this type of poverty are lack of access to goods, services, and infrastructure-energy, sanitation, education, communication, drinking water-necessary to sustain basic human capabilities[9].

(c) Food security Poverty.
F.A.O explained that, where people do not live in hunger or have no fear for starvation, implies that food security situation exist. However due to extreme poverty prevailing around 852M world-wide men, women and children are chronically hungry; while up to 2 billion people lack food security intermittently due to varying degrees of poverty.
There is a direct relationship between food consumption levels and poverty in terms of income. Families with income resources such that they are out of extreme poverty bracket rarely suffer from chronic hunger; while poor families not only suffer the most from chronic hunger, but are also the segment of the population most at risk during food shortages and famines.
Therefore Food Security exists when all people, at all times, have access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food to meet their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life[10].
Food security at household level means that all members of the family have access at all times to enough food for an active, healthy life. Food security position means that there is availability of nutritious, adequate and safe foods with ability to acquire using socially acceptable means. The opposite of this is famine and hunger both of which are rooted from food insecurity. This can be classified as chronic or transitory. Chronic food insecurity results into famine and hunger which is related to poverty.
Currently, Tanzania has not been able to suffice her food security; this is because of low level technology used, depending on rain fed agriculture and inadequate implementation of different agricultural development programs.

3.1 Indicators of poverty
Development is a process of improving /raising the standard of living of the people. It is a process which creates changes measured in different parameters. For example ability to meet basic needs like food and clothing. Development could be the process of improving capacity of getting food or the process of ensuring that people get basic clothes at least to cover their body. Therefore inability to meet those basic human needs leads to impoverishment.
Lack of these basic needs (also referred as indicators) as discussed above can either be under Income poverty, Social wellbeing poverty or Food security Poverty as indicated in the following table:

Poor infrastructures, poor roads, poor water supply, lack of schools etc: Some parts of the country does not have passable roads, clean water supply, adequate schools and teachers.
Social wellbeing
Shortage of Food/food insecurity which leads into hunger: Many parts of the country have been experiencing nutritious food supply for normal health requirement.
Food Security
Diseases: In Tanzania we are experiencing incurable diseases like HIV / AIDS and curable diseases like malaria which renders people poorer.
Social wellbeing
Income levels in Tanzania is half a $ or TZS. 500 per person per day.
Income poverty
Civil wars, conflicts, political instability due to political monopoly, too much discriminations
Social wellbeing
Homelessness and landlessness:
Income/Social wellbeing

3.2 Causes of Poverty or impoverishment in Tanzania
(i) Historical factors,
Tanzania like other African countries lost a lot of its resources during the time of slavery in terms of manpower, and other natural resources like ivory, skins, precious stones timber and other commodities which were taken freely to Europe. During industrial revolution in Europe African countries including Tanzania were colonized to ensure supply of raw materials to metropolitan industries with very little compensation. Neo-colonization and globalization still impoverish developing countries people including Tanzanian people. .

(ii) Environmental / Natural features:
Environmental features or natural features such as climate, arable/fertile land, rainfall, minerals, fresh water, energy, and other natural features have a lot to do with poverty. Some people in Tanzania normally in the rural areas are poor due to unfavorable environment features. However poverty is also experienced by people who live in very favorable environment features.
(iii) Macro-economic conditions
Economic policies are important factors in Tanzanian poverty. Good policies will eradicate poverty but poor policies will increase poverty.

(iv) Disease:
Diseases are the sources of poverty specifically those classified as diseases of poverty: AIDS, malaria, and tuberculosis, which perpetuate poverty by diverting individual, community, and national wealth and economic resources from investment and productivity. The Tsetse fly makes it very difficult to use many animals in agriculture in afflicted regions.

(v) Poor Governance:
Poor governance results into lack of rule of law, democracy , and political will for those in power, prevalence of political monopoly or discrimination, bureaucratic practices, selfishness, favoritism and corruption. This is also a situation in which there is no transparency and accountability. The leaders in this case are conservative (do not want to change)
Creation of tax havens for foreign investors in which citizens are heavily taxed but not citizen from other nations and refuse to disclose information necessary for foreign taxation. This enables large scale political corruption, tax evasion, and organized crime in the foreign nations.

(vi) Social services
Lack of health care, equitably availability of schools, birth control methods needed to check population growth.

(vii) Technology , Education and infrastructure
Poor technology or techniques of production and appropriate education / knowledge

(viii) Poor infrastructure
Lack of good infrastructure like roads and transport facilitates causes poverty.
(ix) Free trade liberalization, the very high subsidies to and protective tariffs for agriculture in the developed world market. Lack of trade barriers on incoming (often highly subsidized) goods from wealthier countries.
(x) Substance abuse, such as alcoholism and drug abuse.
(xi) Cultural beliefs and rigidity to attitude change, actions and choices.
(xii)Discrimination of various kinds, such as age discrimination, stereotyping, gender discrimination.
(xiii) Rural urban migration, The youth are migrating to towns and cities from rural areas hence man power in rural areas is affected.
(xiv) Floods, draughts, pests and vermin.
(xv) Lack of capital in terms of money or working tools, expertise etc.
(xvi) Dependency on local and foreign donors: People believe that without donation nothing can be done. This attitude brings poverty.
(xvii) Political conflicts destroying infrastructure.
(xviii) Lack of savings which are necessary for capital building and investments.
(xix) Laziness and idling: Able people are wasting time doing nothing, playing cards or sleeping during the day and night.

3.3 Solutions
(i) Increase in production and productivity in agriculture, industries, fisheries, mining etc.
(ii) Improving economic infrastructure at the national level, these are roads, water supply, electricity, irrigations schemes, marketing and commerce.
(iii) Good governance can be achieved through:
(a) Political will by leaders (b) better policies (c) Willingness to invest in production (d) improve accountability (d) improve transparency (e) institute anticorruption
(iv) Cultural change or attitude change through education.
(v) Develop self reliance in production and avoid dependency on donors for development.
(vi) One of the best suggested model of poverty alleviation is through applications of CED approach which promotes and build community self reliance, control inclusion, with broad participation, involve those who are marginalized and existing social and economical policy[11]. Through CED people initiate their own strategies which seek to develop the economy of the community, region or country for the benefit of its residents. CED is a systematic planned intervention that is intended to promote economic self reliance. This will lead to consumers becoming producers, users becoming providers, and employee becoming owners of enterprise. It does not assume that market alone will solve the economic problems of the communities[12].

However we may say that there is no single solution for poverty alleviation but a combination of methods may provide good results. It is not the Government or donor community, who will provide solution for this social evil, but peoples focus on the problem, commitment and willingness to fight jointly will provide good results.

Historically Tanzania has been fighting poverty through its development plans and strategies. Just after Independence there were sectoral; development plans (water, energy, land Agriculture, Industry, fishery and mining). Arusha declaration gave birth to Socialism and self reliance policy with an objective of fighting exploitation of the poor people by capitalists. In 1975 village act was passes which established ujamaa villages as primary Cooperative societies.
In order to ensure that poor people are linked to financial services, the Government through its Ministry of Coop. and Marketing established Cooperative Development Policy 2002, which encouraged formation of SACCOS within the area of operation of primary societies. Further more the government initiated Rural Financial Services Program financed by IFAD, with an objective of strengthening the operational and financial performance of both existing and new grass roots MFIs, like SACCOS, that meets financial needs of the rural people. It trains leaders and members on microfinance best practice and provides institutional support to MFIs. Also build capacity to existing financial institutions (FIs), Community and Cooperative Banks, to expand their financial services to rural area and link up with the grass roots MFIs which in turn will provide loans to microenterprises of the poor people[13].

Through Property and Business Formalization Program (PBFP) “MKURABITA”, the government aimed at economically empowering the poor by increasing their access to property and business opportunities, towards development of a strong expanded market economy, which is governed by the rule of law[14]. This Program is conceived within National Strategy for Growth and Reduction of Poverty (NSGRP) “MKUKUTA”.

NSGRP (MKUKUTA) is a second national organizing framework for putting the focus on poverty reduction which is high on the country’s development agenda. The NSGRP is informed by the aspiration of the Tanzanian’s Development Vision (Vision 2025) for high and shared growth, high quality livelihood, peace, stability and unity, good governance, high quality education and international competitiveness. It is committed to the Millennium Development Goals (MDGS) as internationally agreed target for reducing poverty.[15]

The last but not the least is the Economical Empowerment Program popularly known as “J.K. Empowerment Program” in which 1bn TZS will be spent in each region for loans specifically to be provided to microenterprises for economical empowerment, in poverty alleviation. [16].

4.1 Weaknesses of the policies
(i) The strategies formulated and implemented on poverty alleviation were not participatory, instead were TOP DOWN with an assumption that the communities have no skills to put inputs on those strategies resulting into failure to realize the expected positive impact.
(ii) The strategies were donor dependency on funding and driven by donor policies which are still hindrance to poverty struggled.
(iii) There is unconsolidated approach in addressing poverty.
Moreover, Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers (PRSPs - MKUKUTA) are in many ways the replacement for Structural Adjustment Programs, and are documents required by the IMF and World Bank before a country can be considered for debt relief within the HIPC ( Highly Indebted Poor Countries) program.[17] Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers (PRSP) are believed to be prepared by the member countries through a participatory process involving domestic stakeholders as well as external development partners, including the World Bank and International Monetary Fund.

War against poverty has registered some achievements, like school children enrollment and increase in secondary school intake. Introduction to community health insurance positively achieved reduction of maternal mortality rate and introduction of health insurance to the community level.
However still the poverty level in Tanzania is still high due to the fact that majority of Tanzanian population is still below poverty line. Therefore concerted efforts are required to involve the poor community in solving this problem in order to ensure support in the implementation of the programs.

Tanzania should work out equitable utilization of available natural resources for the benefit of the people instead of enriching foreign multinational mining companies through bad mining contacts. Now it is time to understand that poverty alleviation will not be effected through high dependence of donor funding (development partners). We must build the spirit of self reliance.

1. Dr. Phil Bartle (2007), Factors of Poverty, The Big Five, Workshop notes Published in http:// www.scn.org.
2. English free dictionary (2007).
3 .FAO, 2003
4. http: www. Ippmedia.com/ipp/guardian/2007/01/04
5. Kemp & Coyle, 1994: 261
6. National strategy for growth and reduction of poverty [NSGRP] of Tanzania, VPO, 2005, p.13
7. RFSP News Letter (2004): www.rffsp.org
8. Sanyika 1989. p. 9
9. The World Bank (2007) Poverty Analysis overview Http://web.worldbank.org.
10.. UNDP (2000) Poverty Report 2000, Overcoming Human Poverty, New York,USA
11. URT, Presidents Office, Empowering the disadvantaged towards Expanded market Economy
12. URT,Vice presidents office (June 2005) , National Strategy for Growth and Reduction of Poverty
13. Vice presidents Office ((2005),National strategy for growth and reduction of poverty [NSGRP] of Tanzania, p.4
14. Wikipedia free encyclopidia.
[1] Dr. Phil Bartle (2007), Factors of Poverty, The Big Five, Workshop notes Published in http:// www.scn.org.
[2] Dr. Phil Bartle (2007), Factors of Poverty, op. cit.

[3] English free dictionary (2007).
[4] Wikipedia Free Encycopidia
[5] The World Bank (2007) Poverty Analysis overview Http://web.worldbank.org.
[6] Wikipedia free encyclopidia.
[7] Vice presidents Office ((2005),National strategy for growth and reduction of poverty [NSGRP] of Tanzania, p.4
[8] National strategy for growth and reduction of poverty [NSGRP] of Tanzania, VPO, 2005, p.13
[9] UNDP (2000) Poverty Report 2000, Overcoming Human Poverty, New York,USA
[10] : FAO, 2003
[11] Kemp & Coyle, 1994: 261
[12] Sanyika 1989. p. 9
[13] RFSP News Letter (2004) : www.rffsp.org
[14] URT, Presidents Office, Empowering the disadvantaged towards Expanded market Economy
[15] URT,Vice presidents office (June 2005) , National Strategy for Growth and Reduction of Poverty
[16] http: www. Ippmedia.com/ipp/guardian/2007/01/04
[17] Wikipedia free Encyclopedia.


1.0 Introduction
The purpose of this journal is to explain the meaning of knowledge by discussing various definitions provided by different scholars and highlighting different types of knowledge. The discussion in this paper will also try to explain how knowledge is created and owned. Since knowledge is not static, then the paper will analyze on how it is disseminated and applied. Furthermore the paper will try to explain how knowledge is related to power and how it creates dependency.

Knowledge is important to mankind for understanding his environment and struggle for survival under different conditions. Without knowledge which was acquired over the years, the prevailing civilization could not be achieved. Therefore development is brought by application of knowledge. Researches are conducted in order to acquire knowledge of problems prevailing in the society and obtain solutions for future application in development processes. Therefore knowledge is the ability to understand the problem and find solution to create a general understanding or awareness creation.
Knowledge is responsible for scientific discoveries, technological advancement and industrial revolution. This is the ability to understand and finding solutions. In other words knowledge is breaking the barriers of development and come up with innovation or new products.

2.0 What is knowledge
Knowledge is defined by Oxford English Dictionary as expertise, and skills acquired by a person through experience or education; the theoretical or practical understanding of a subject. It means that a person may acquire knowledge through formal education or through experience by practical way of doing things. Further defined as what is known in a particular field or in total; facts and information or awareness or familiarity gained by experience of a fact or situation[1].

John Locke (1689) defined knowledge as perception of agreement or disagreement of two ideas in his book of knowledge and probability. Davenport and Prusak (1998 p.5) define knowledge as a fluid mix of framed experience, contextual information, value, and expert insight that provides a frame work for evaluating and incorporating new experience and information.
Knowledge is also defined as information that changes something or somebody….either by becoming grounds for actions, or by, making an individual (or an institution) capable of undertaking different things[2]. Therefore knowledge is a catalyst for any course of action one would like to take. Also knowledge is responsible for behavior change as observed by Davenport and Prusak (1998). However this can only happen through absorption. It must be emphasized that availability of knowledge may not automatically lead to absorption and knowledge that is not absorbed is not fully transferred.
The attitudes of mind of the people in Antigua were completely changed by colonialist. Making them abandon their history, tradition, customs and even their language and instead adopted an utopian lifestyle as observed by Jamaica Kincaid (1988). The colonialist ensured that theirs subject’s background had lost meaning. This kind of situation provides us with the fact that, whoever controls the knowledge creation has the power of changing the mindset of others. Thus the controller of the knowledge becomes superior whereas, the recipient in that knowledge becomes inferior.
This is exactly the same approach applied by missionaries when preaching religion of civilization in Africa prior to colonization. They referred indigenous religion, customs, and tradition as unacceptable, uncivilized and against god (their god). Through this method they were able to change mindset of their subjects and therefore it was very easy to colonize them. Therefore the controller of the knowledge had power against the recipient of the knowledge.
Knowledge is an intangible product/asset stored in the brain of the person who acquired it. He/she is the owner of that knowledge which is valuable and he can obtain patent right. Therefore he can decide to sell it like any other commodity.
Knowledge can be transferred through various media, which may be formal or informal depending on various levels. In the upper level formal knowledge is transferred using applicable media like books, letters, journals, papers etc. At the lower level, informal knowledge is the kind of knowledge transferred through verbal communication. (Patric Reany 1988) added that when we talk about knowledge we mean knowledge about some object. Informally, knowledge is a description of the state of some object. The object may be either physical or abstract. Some examples of abstract objects include love, hate, memory, the future, and even knowledge itself. We naively believe that our knowledge of reality is direct, but this is a mistake. Our experience with physical objects is actually indirect. We do not directly mentally experience physical objects; we mentally experience only our concepts of them. He therefore defined knowledge as a relation between two or more concepts, where concepts are mental objects[3].
2.1 Types of knowledge
Knowledge can be divided into two main categories namely tacit knowledge and explicitly knowledge. Also it can be situated and partial.
a) Tacit knowledge
This is knowledge embedded in communities traditions and is defined as personal knowledge rooted in individual experience. This kind of knowledge is not written and is only transferable face to face (Polanyi 1966). We can equate this to traditional/indigenous knowledge in which indigenous people have discovered a lot of products which are not yet patented for example tradition medicines which are used for centuries to cure a lot of ailments. According to tradition norms the technology is not transferable freely and knowledge can only be useful to the society if it can be disseminated and applied.
Therefore tacit knowledge is difficult to convey in a formal way as it is not documented and it contains subjective insights, intuitions, and hunches. Before tacit knowledge can be communicated, it must be converted into words, models, or numbers that can be understood. Tacit knowledge has two dimensions namely:

Technical dimension:
These are the kind of informal skills captured in terms of knowledge, for example a craft person develops a wealth of expertise after several years of experience, but such craft person has difficulties in articulating the technical and scientific principles of his or her craft. In other words he doesn’t have a document or “blue print “of his works explaining procedures and
Cognitive dimension
This is a tacit knowledge consists of beliefs, values, perceptions, ideas, emotions and mental models, all these are ingrained in us. This dimension cannot be articulated easily but they shape the way we perceive the world around us.
b) Explicitly knowledge
This is the knowledge that can be articulated into formal language including grammatical statements (word in numbers, mathematical expressions, specifications, manuals etc.) Explicitly knowledge can be readily transmitted to others, also it can easily be processed in a computer transmitted electronically and stored in a data base.
c) Situated knowledge
Knowledge can be applicable in a particular situation only. For example people in a particular area may have developed methods of cultivation suitable to that particular climate. Those methods can not be applicable in other area due to different climate.

d) Partial knowledge
Whatever knowledge people have, is considered partial. Knowledge in a particular specialty is very wide and it is impossible to know every thing in that particular field. We have to live with fact that our knowledge is always not complete, that is partial.
2.2 Knowledge creation and conversion
Tacit knowledge can be created through socialization. When people meet they exchange ideas, share experience which also include imitation of what others are doing, through observation. In this way tacit knowledge is disseminated. Likewise explicit knowledge can be transferred to tacit knowledge though learning by doing. This process is known as internalization. On the other hand tacit knowledge can be formalized through documentation and become explicit through a process known as externalization.
Explicit knowledge creation, from explicit to explicit, is achieved through formal training, meetings, seminars, media, conversation etc. Knowledge is taped, sorted and rearranged to meet the objective of dissemination. This process is known as combination.

2.3 Characteristics of knowledge
Human ability is knowledge; therefore it is not a property tangible like a book which can be transferred physically. Transmission of knowledge is through intellectual processes of learning and teaching. Static knowledge has no value. Knowledge represents a real value only when it moves, through transmission or transformation. Through reasoning knowledge is developed and provide new knowledge.
2.3.1 Knowledge as a source of power and dependency
Whoever possesses knowledge which is not available to others develops power over those who do not possess the knowledge. This power created by knowledge also creates dependence relationship in which the knowledgeable person is depended by those without the knowledge. For example an employee who is considered to possess rare knowledge he will dictate terms with his employer who depends on him and not prepared to loose him/her. Likewise his colleges will depend on him for the knowledge he has. However this dependency will cease after others become knowledgeable. Therefore in order knowledge to create power and dependency it must be unknown to others.
2.4 Benefits of knowledge.
Knowledge has a lot of benefits to human being in different perspectives, including scientific discoveries on medicines which help to cure various diseases like malaria, small pox, pneumonia etc. Likewise economic development brought by industrial revolution in which poverty was reduced. Knowledge was also responsible for other scientific discoveries which enhanced efficiency in various areas of production including agriculture production.
2.5 Problems of Knowledge.
Knowledge is expensive and it takes time to generate. Knowledge can be destructive like atomic bomb technology and global warming due to industrialization which pollute the atmosphere. Pesticides and mining have created environment destruction.
3.0 Conclusion.
People live and survive because they have knowledge which they utilize for producing goods and services as employees or self employed. Without knowledge there is no development. Knowledge can be utilized to alleviate poverty when it is applicable for improvement of production of goods and services. Knowledge is power in life and whoever possesses it is capable of changing the mind set of others. Also knowledge created dependency relationship between the owner and those who doesn’t have.
Knowledge is transferable from individual to individual through leaning and through observation. Moreover knowledge is transferred through learning by doing. Technology has been transferred across nations and continents through this process. Globalization has speeded up this process and it is through this process that countries considered poor hundred years ago are now heavily industrialized with dramatic economic growth, for example China, India, Malaysia, Singapore etc.
Davenport and Prusak (1998), Knowledge and behavior change
Jamaica Kincaid “a small place” from A small Place Virago, London, 1988
John Lockie (1689), knowledge and probability
Patrick Reany (1988) Arizona Journal of Natural Philosophy, Vol. 2, pp. 7-14.
Peter F. Drucker, in the New Realities
[1] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/knowledge
[2] Peter F. Drucker, in the New Realities
[3] Patrick Reany (1988) Arizona Journal of Natural Philosophy, Vol. 2, pp. 7-14.